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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations

Topics and Sub Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations


NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science (Chemistry) Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science. Here we have given Class 10 Science NCERT Solutions Chapter 1.


Question-1
Which of the given statements about the reaction below are incorrect?
ncert solutions for class 10 science Chapter 1 - 1
a. Lead is getting reduced
b. Carbon dioxide is getting oxidised
c. Carbon is getting oxidised
d. Lead oxide is getting reduced
(i) (a) and (b)
(ii) (a) and (c)
(iii) (a), (b) and (c)
(iv) all
Solution:
(i) (a) and (b)
Question-2
ncert solutions for class 10 science Chapter 1 - 2
The above reaction is an example of a
(i). Combination reaction
(ii). Double displacement reaction
(iii). Decomposition reaction
(iv). Displacement reaction
Solution:
(iv) Displacement reaction
Question-3
What happens when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to iron fillings? Tick the correct answer.
a. Hydrogen gas and iron chloride are produced
b. Chlorine gas and iron hydroxide are produced
c. No reaction takes place
d Iron salt and water are produced
Solution:
Hydrogen gas and iron chloride are produced
Question-4
What is a balanced chemical equation? Why should chemical equations be balanced?
Solution:
An equation for a chemical reaction is an equation in which the number of atoms for each element in the reaction and the total charge is the same for both the reactants and the products. In other words, the mass and the charge are balanced on both sides of the reaction.
Question-5
Translate the following statements into chemical equations and then balance them.
a. Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen to form ammonia
b. Hydrogen sulfide gas burns in air to give water and sulfur dioxide
c. Barium chloride reacts with Aluminium sulfate to give Aluminium chloride and a precipitate of barium sulphate
d. Potassium metal reacts with water to give a potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas
Solution:
a. 3H2 + N2 —> 2NH3
b. 2H2S + 3O2 —> 2H2O + 2SO2
c. 3BaCl2 + Al2(SO4)3 —> 2AlCl3 + 3BaSO4
d. 2K + 2H2O —> 2KOH + H2
Question-6
Balance the following chemical equations.
ncert solutions for class 10 science Chapter 1 - 3
Question-7
Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:
ncert solutions for class 10 science Chapter 1 - 4
Question-8
Write the balanced chemical equation for the following and identify the type of reaction of each case.
NCERT-Solutions-Chemical-Reactions-and-Equation-Q8
Solution:
a. 2KBr + BaI2 —> 2KI + BaBr2 — Double Displacement reaction
b. ZnCO3 —> ZnO + CO2 — Decomposition reaction
c. H2 + Cl2 —> 2HCl — Combination reaction
d. Mg + 2HCl –> MgCl2 + H2 — Displacement reaction
Question-9
What is meant by exothermic and endothermic reactions? Give examples.
Solution:
An exothermic reaction is one that releases heat.
If 1 mole of N2 molecule reacts with 1 mole of O2 molecule, the heat of 184 KJ has to be supplied to initiate the reaction to give 1 mole of NO molecule. This means that the bonds between N – N and O – O are so strong that they do not break easily. N2 has triple covalent bond between the two N atoms. O2 has a double covalent bond. Thus energy has to be put into the reaction to break the strong bonds. Thus the above reaction is a good example of an endothermic reaction.
Question-10
Why is respiration considered an exothermic reaction?
Solution:
During respiration, glucose combines with oxygen in the cells of our body to form carbon dioxide and water along with the production of energy.
Glucose + oxygen —> carbon dioxide + water + energy
It is an exothermic reaction, because energy is produced during this process.
Question-11
Why are decomposition reactions called the opposite of combination reactions? Write equations for decomposition reactions.
Solution:
Essentially, decomposition reactions are the opposite of combination reactions. A compound decomposes (i.e., “splits-up”) into two or more compounds and/or elements. For example, mercury (II) oxide will, decompose into mercury metal and oxygen, upon heating:
2HgO —> 2Hg + O
Since heat had to be added to make this reaction occur, it is an endothermic reaction. Most decomposition reactions are endothermic. Another example of decomposition reaction is the heating of calcium carbonate (sea shells, chalk):
ncert solutions for class 10 science Chapter 1 - 5
Question-12
Write one equation each for decomposition reactions in which energy is supplied in the form of heat, light or electricity?
Solution:
When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes to give calcium oxide and carbon dioxide:
NCERT Science class 10 solutions 1
Question-13
What is the difference between displacement and double displacement reactions? Write relevant equations for the above?
Solution:
The difference between the displacement and double displacement reactions is that in a displacement reaction one element displaces another by virtue of it being more reactive whereas in a double displacement two anions and two cations switch places between two compounds respectively.
For example:
CuSO4 (aq) + Zn(s) —> ZnSO4 + Cu(s)
Blue copper sulphate solution reacting with solid zinc will give rise to colourless zinc sulphate solution and solid copper. Thus Zn displaces Cu in the salt form. Zn is more reactive than Cu.
An example of double displacement reaction is the reaction between sodium carbonate and calcium chloride, both in aqueous
Solution:
Na2CO3 (aq) + CaCl2 (aq) —> CaCO3 (ppt) + 2NaCl(aq)
Question-14
In the refining of silver, the recovery of silver from silver nitrate solution involves displacement by copper metal. Write down the reaction involved.
Solution:
NCERT Science class 10 solutions Chemical Reactions 1
Question-15
What do you mean by a precipitation reaction? Explain by giving examples:
Solution:
A precipitation reaction is a reaction in which soluble ions in separate solutions are mixed together to form an insoluble compound that settles out of solution as a solid. This insoluble compound is called a precipitate.
An example of a precipitation reaction
Aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3), when added to a solution containing potassium chloride (KCl), precipitates a white solid, and silver chloride is observed.
AgNO3 (aq) + KCl(aq) —> AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq) 
The silver chloride (AgCl) has formed a solid, which is observed as a precipitate.
Question-16
A shiny brown colored element ‘X’ on heating in the air becomes black in color. Name the element ‘X’ and the black coloured compound formed.
Solution:
The shiny brown colored element X is copper metal (Cu). When copper metal is heated in air, it forms a black colored compound copper oxide. So, the black colored compound is the copper oxide or copper (II) oxide, CuO.
Question-17
Why do we apply paint on iron articles?
Solution:
Rust is a soft and porous substance, which gradually falls from the surface of an iron object, and then the iron below starts rusting. Thus, rusting of iron (or corrosion of iron) is a continuous process which, if not prevented in time, eats up the whole iron object. So, when we apply paint on iron articles it reduces the rusting of iron.
Question-18
Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen. Why?
Solution:
Packaging fat and oil containing foods in nitrogen gas can prevent rancidity. When the fat and oil present in food materials gets oxidised (in air), their oxidation products have an unpleasant smell and taste. When it is surrounded by unreactive gas, nitrogen, there is no oxygen (of air) to cause its oxidation and make it rancid.
Question-19
Explain the following terms with one example each.
a. Corrosion
b. Rancidity
Solution:
a. Corrosion is the process in which metals are eaten up gradually by the action of air, moisture or a chemical on their surface. Corrosion is caused mainly by the oxidation of metals by the oxygen of air.
Example: Rusting of iron is the most common form of corrosion. When an iron object is left in damp air for a considerable period of time, it gets covered with a red-brown flaky substance called ‘rust’. This is called rusting of iron.
b. The condition produced by aerial oxidation of fat and oil in food which is marked by an unpleasant smell and taste is called rancidity.
Example: Rancidity can be retarded by keeping food in a refrigerator.
The refrigerator has a low temperature inside it. When the food is kept in a refrigerator, the oxidation of fat and oil in it is slowed down due to low temperature. So, the development of rancidity due to oxidation is retarded.
Question-20
Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before burning in air?
Solution:
To remove the oxide layer and facilitates rapid burning.
Question-21
Write the balanced equation for the following chemical reactions.
i. Hydrogen + Chloride —> Hydrogen chloride
ii. Barium chloride + Aluminium sulphate —> Barium sulphate + Aluminium chloride
iii. Sodium + water —> Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen
Solution:
i. H2 + Cl2 —> 2HCl
ii. 3BaCl2 + Al2(SO4)3 —> 3BaSO4 + 2AlCl3
iii. 2Na + 2H2O —> 2NaOH + H2
Question-22
Write a balanced chemical equation and state symbols for the following reactions.
a. Solutions of barium chloride and sodium sulphate in water react to give insoluble barium sulphate and the solution of sodium chloride
b. Sodium hydroxide solution (in water) reacts with hydrochloric acid solution (in water) to produce sodium chloride solution and water.
Solution:
NCERT Science class 10 solutions Chemical Reactions and Equations 1
Question-23
A solution of a substance ‘X’ is used for white washing.
Name the substance ‘X’ and write its formula.
(i) Write the reaction of the substance ‘X; named in (ii) above with water
Solution:
NCERT-Solutions-Chemical-Reactions-and-Equation-Q23
Question-24
Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is dipped into it?
Solution:
In this reaction, iron displaces copper from copper sulphate solution. The deep blue colour of copper sulphate solution fades due to the formation of light green solution of iron sulphate. A red-brown coating of copper metal is formed on the surface of the iron metal. This displacement reaction occurs because iron is more reactive than copper.
Question-25
Identify the substances that are oxidised and the substances that are reduced in the following reactions.
NCERT Science class 10 solutions Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
In this reaction, copper oxide (CuO) gives the oxygen required for the oxidation of hydrogen; therefore, copper oxide is the oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is responsible for removing oxygen from copper oxide; therefore, hydrogen is the reducing agent here.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 (MCQs) [1 Mark each]

Question 1.
When crystals of lead nitrate are heated strongly in a dry test tube
(a) crystals immediately melt
(b) a brown residue is left
(c) white fumes appear in the test tube
(d) a yellow residue is left
Answer:
(b) Pungent smelling, brown fumes are evolved due to NO2 gas and brown coloured residue of lead oxide (PbO) is left.
NCERT solutions class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Question 2.
A dilute ferrous sulphate solution was gradually added to the beaker containing acidified permanganate solution. The light purple colour of the solution fades and finally disappears. Which of the following is the correct explanation for the observation? [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) KMnO4 is an oxidising agent, it oxidises FeSO4
(b) FeSO4 acts as an oxidising agent and oxidises KMnO4
(c) The colour disappears due to dilution, no reaction is involved
(d) KMnO4 is an unstable compound and decomposes in the presence of FeSO4 to a colourless compound
Answer:
(a) Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in the presence of dil. H2SO4, i.e. in acidic medium, acts as a strong oxidising agent. In acidic medium, KMnO4 oxidises ferrous sulphate to ferric sulphate.
class 10 Science NCERT solutions Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations PDF
Question 3.
Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to granulated zinc taken in a test tube. The following observations are recorded. Point out the correct observation.
(a) The surface of metal becomes shining
(b) The reaction mixture turns milky
(c) Odour of a pungent smelling gas is recorded
(d) A colourless and odourless gas is evolved
Answer:
(d) Zinc metal reacts with dil. HCl to form zinc chloride and bubbles of colourless and odourless hydrogen gas is evolved.
NCERT class 10 Science solutions Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Question 4.
When a magnesium ribbon is burnt in air, the ash formed is
(a) black
(b) white
(c) yellow
(d) pink
Answer:
(b) When a Mg ribbon is burnt in air, the ash formed is of magnesium oxide which is white in colour.
2Mg(r) + O2(g) ——–> 2MgO(f)
Question 5.
Three beakers labelled as A, B and C each containing 25 mL of water were taken. A small amount of NaOH, anhyd. CuSO4 and NaCl were added to the beakers A, B and C, respectively. It was observed that there was an increase in the temperature of the solutions contained in beakers A and B whereas, in case of beaker C, the temperature of the solution falls. Which one of the following statements is/are correct?
I. In beakers A and B, exothermic process has occurred.
II. In beakers A and B, endothermic process has occurred.
III. In beaker C, the exothermic process has occurred.
IV. In beaker C, endothermic process has occurred. [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) I and IV
(d) II and III
Answer:
(c) As in case of beakers A and B, heat is given out, so temperature became high, hence it is an exothermic reaction while in beaker C, heat is absorbed from water, so temperature falls, hence it is an endothermic process.
Question 6.
Which of the following will be required to identify the gas evolved when dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal?
(a) Red litmus paper
(b) pH paper
(c) Lime water
(d) A burning splinter
Answer:
(d) On reacting with dil. HCl, zinc metal forms zinc chloride and hydrogen gas is evolved. Presence of hydrogen gas can be checked by a burning splinter because Hgas burnt in a splinter with a pop sound.
Science NCERT solutions class 10 Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Question 7.
On immersing an iron nail in CuSO4 solution for few minutes, you will observe that
(a) no reaction takes place
(b) the colour of solution fades away
(c) the surface of iron nails acquire a black coating
(d) the colour of solution changes to green
Answer:
(b) Fe(s) + CuSO(aq) ——> FeSO(aq) + Cu(s)
Fe is present above in the reactivity series of metals. Hence, Fe displaces Cu from CuSO4 solution. And the colour of the solution fades away. This is an example of displacement reaction.
Question 8.
What happens when ferrous sulphate crystals are heated? [CCE 2014]
(a) A gas having the smell of burning sulphur is evolved
(b) No gas is evolved
(c) Brown coloured gas is evolved
(d) Colourless and odourless gas is evolved
Answer:
(a) The green colour of ferrous sulphate crystals changes to brownish black ferric oxide and smell of burning sulphur is evolved due to SO2 and SO3.
NCERT solutions of class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Question 9.
The colour of the precipitate formed when barium chloride solution is mixed with sodium sulphate solution is [CCE 2014]
(a) blue
(b) black
(c) white
(d) green
Answer:
(c) This is an example of a double displacement reaction and a white precipitate of barium sulphate is formed.
NCERT Science book class 10 solutions Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Question 10.
How the colour changes when the gases after thermal decomposition of ferrous sulphate come in contact with an acidified solution of potassium dichromate?
(a) Green to orange
(b) Red to colorless
(c) Orange to green
(d) Blue to green
Answer:
(c) The color changes from orange to green due to the formation of iron (III) sulphate